What is Surgical Sperm Retrieval? This is a treatment option for men with Azoospermia (absence of sperm in the ejaculate) due to obstruction or poor production (non-obstructive). Sperm can be collected directly from the epididymis where sperm are usually stored and matured. The sperm can be collected using a fine needle and syringe. This is known as (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration) or PESA. Sperm can also be retrieved from the testicles, a procedure known as (testicular sperm extraction) or TESE. Surgical sperm retrieval is carried out by an experienced surgeon, usually a Consultant Uroandrologist, or a fertility specialist. The procedure needs to be timed to coincide with the female partner’s egg collection. If enough sperm is retrieved, it may be possible to freeze small amounts for use at a later stage. The sperm collected is then used to inject the eggs using ICSI.